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全国2005年4月高等教育自学考试外刊经贸知识选读试题3

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Passage 1 Holst and Company, a member of the Northwest Holst Group, has introduced flexible working hours for all its staff at its head office. It claims to be the first UK construction company to do this. The three-month trial period is being conducted with the approval of the overwhelming majority of the head offices. All 150 employees must be at their job during the “core time”from 10 am to 4 pm, less a one-our lunch break. They may choose arrival and departure times from 8 to 10 am and 4 to 6 pm. 150 hours have to be put in over each four week period. Credit or debit time of up to 7 and 1/2 hours may be carried forward to the next four-week period. Hengstler Flextime recording equipment is being used for the trial. The managing director of Holst, Mr Colin Cashmore, commented, “This is an exercise in responsibility. We regard our staff as very responsible people and it is only on this basis that the flexible working hours system can succeed.” He emphasized that if after the trial a majority of the staff was opposed to the system, it would not be continued. If, on the other hand, it proved successful, the company would consider extending Flextime to its other offices throughout the country.Statements: 42. The Northwest Holst Group has introduced flexible working hours for all its staff at its head office. ( ) 43. Every employee must be at his or her job during the “core time” from 10 am to 4 pm, including a one-hour lunch break.( ) 44. All 150 employees are free to choose their arrival and departure times during the day. ( ) 45. If all the staff of Holst and Company were not responsible, the flexible working hours system could not succeed.( ) 46. Holst and Company has decided to carry out the flexible working hours system even if the majority of the staff is opposed to it.( )Passage 2 Japan’s economy is in the most wrenching adjustment since the oil-price shock of the early 1970s. The optimists have predicted that the powerhouse economy is suffering only a temporary slowdown. Yet virtually every key indicator continues to deteriorate. The much-vaunted “soft landing” is cleaning not in the cards. Recovery is further away than many people imagine, and it will be slow and erratic when it does come. Alarmed at the rapid asset-price inflation of the mid-1980s, bureaucrats intervened to head off a crash. Unfortunately, the economy didn’t cooperate. Asset prices tumbled precipitously, with the real estate and stock markets embarking on a steady slide that many believe has yet to hit bottom. Japan dipped decidedly into recession as GDP fell 0.2% in the second quarter of 1992, 0.4% in the third and 0.3% in the fourth. Industrial output shrank 6.1% last year. Now we’re starting to see bankruptcies by industrial and service companies. The recession is no longer confined to the bubble economy-it has entered the real economy. Japanese companies do have an impressive track record of responding to crisis situations. They rebounded very quickly from the oil-price shock in 1973 and more recently offset the rising Yen by boosting productivity and shifting operations overseas. This time around, however, they face a much harder and longer road to recovery. Recession is going to be very difficult for Japan. The restructuring trend may itself exacerbate the problem. To try to shore up faltering profits, companies will slash capital investment and employee benefits. This in turn will further damage consumer confidence. Around 20% of Japan’s GNP comes from business investment, with a whopping 60% from consumer spending. Consumer confidence has also been hurt by layoffs and cuts in overtime pay and bonuses. For a long time there have been more new job offers than there were seekers, but this has fallen recently. For most Japanese this is an extraordinary occurrence.Statements: 47. Japan’s economy is in the most wrenching adjustment since the oil-price shock of the early 1970s. Here“the most wrenching adjustment”means“the most painless adjustment”. ( ) 48. As GNP fell successively and there are bankruptcies in some companies, we can say for certain that the economy is undoubtedly in recession.( ) 49. Japanese industries were known to be remarkably flexible in adjusting to economic crisis. This time it’s going to be very difficult for them to emerge from recession. ( ) 50. Consumer confidence is vitally important to Japan’s economy, because employee benefits were slashed.( ) 51. The recent occurrence of layoffs and cuts in overtime pay and bonuses is quite unusual to most Japanese, as for a long time there have been more job offers than seekers. ( )VI. Translate the following passage into Chinese: (12%) Barter endured for thousands of years as the primary means of trade. Colonial powers forced bilateral barter upon their client states, making the colonies take expensive manufactured goods in return for bargain-price raw materials, and prohibiting them from trading with other nations. International trade was supposed to be freed from bartering’s constraints in July 1944, when diplomats and economists attended the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire

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