课程代码：00832 I．Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that best completes the statement and put the letter in the bracket. (30%) 1. Extension can be illustrated by the following example: _________.（ ） A. butcher → one who kills goats B. journal → periodical C. companion → one who shares bread D. allergic → too sensitive to medicine
2. The differences between synonyms boil down to three areas, namely, _________.（ ） A. extension, increase and expansion B. denotation, connotation and application C. comprehension, understanding and knowing D. polysemy, homograph and homophone
3. Affixes attached to other morphemes to create new words are known as _________.（ ） A. inflectional affixes B. derivational affixes C. bound roots D. free morphemes
4. Ambiguity often arises due to polysemy and _________.（ ） A. synonymy B. antonymy C. homonymy D. hyponymy
5. The semantic unity of idioms is reflected in the _________ relationship between the literal meaning of each word and the meaning of the idiom as in “rain cats and dogs”.（ ） A. illogical B. logical C. mutual D. natural
6. Idioms verbal in nature are _________.（ ） A. verb phrases B. phrasal verbs C. verb idioms D. all the above
7. The idiom “new brooms sweep clean” was created probably by _________.（ ） A. seamen B. housewives C. farmers D. hunters
8. The following are all denominal suffixes EXCEPT _________.（ ） A. –ful B. –wise C. –less D. –ike
9. Both English and _________ belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.（ ） A. Celtic B. Dansih C. French D. Scottish
10. Chiefly found in derived words, bound morphemes include _________.（ ） A. bound roots B. inflectional affixes C. derivational affixes D. all the above
11. Motivation accounts for the connection between the word-form and _________.（ ） A. its referent B. its referring expressions C. its meaning D. its concept
12. Words can be classified according to the following criteria EXCEPT _________.（ ） A. notion B. use frequency C. foundation D. origin
13. Which of the following is NOT correct? _________（ ） A. A word is a meaningful group of letters. B. A word is a unit of meaning. C. A word is a sound or combination of sounds. D. A word is a form that cannot function alone in a sentence.
14. If one wants to find out the minute difference between shades of meaning, the best source is _________.（ ） A. a thesaurus B. a synonym finder C. an encyclopedia D. an encyclopedic dictionary
15. Which of the following can be said about a British Dictionary?（ ） A. It is always better than an American dictionary. B. One can always expect to find American usages in it. C. One can never expect to find American usages in it. D. It tends to include more grammatical information.
II. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. (10%) 16.The Norman Conquest in 1066 started a continual flow of ___________ words into English. 17. The attitudes of classes have made inroads into lexical meaning in the case of elevation or ___________. 18. Context can help eliminate ambiguity, provide clues for inferring word-meaning and give ___________ of referents. 19. Compounds are different from free phrases in ___________ unit. 20. Content words have both meanings, and ___________ meaning in particular.III. Match the words or expressions in Column A with those in Column B according to 1) types of figures of speech; 2) types of motivation; 3) types of changes in word meaning. (10%) A B ( )21. senior citizen A. metonymy ( )22. the pot calls the cattle black B. narrowing ( )23. earn one’s bread C. euphemism ( )24. from cradle to grave D. synecdoche ( )25. sit on the fence E. hiss ( )26. constable (a policeman) F. personification ( )27. criticize(find fault with) G. morphologically motivated ( )28. liquor(alcoholic drink) H. degradation ( )29. snakes I. metaphor ( )30. hopeless J. elevation
IV. Study the following words or expressions and identify 1) types of affixes; 2) types of word formation; 3) types of meaning. (10%) 31. harder ( ) 32. Fridge ( ) 33. autocide ( ) 34. tremble with fear ( ) 35. notorious, skinny ( ) 36. two-layer ( ) 37. UNESCO ( ) 38. cloudy ( ) 39. subway ( ) 40. police, money ( )
V. Define the following terms.(10%) 41. extra-linguistic context 42. prefixation 43. semantic change 44. conceptual meaning 45. specialization
VI. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below. (12%) 46. What is semantic unity of idioms? 47. What are the three areas to account for the difference between synonyms? Illustrate your points. 48. What are the major differences between basic word stock and nonbasic vocabulary?
VII. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below.(18%) 49. Analyse the morphological structures of the following words and point out the types of the morphemes. (dishearten, idealistic, unfriendly ) 50. Collocation can affect the meaning of words. (Comment on the statement with your own example.)